Why Use A Masonry Heater?
在室内，砖石炉具燃烧的温度比金属木材炉具高，其蜿蜒曲折的烟道(挡板)加热周围的砖石，然后散发热量18至24小时。The temperature can reach2000 degrees insidesome masonry heaters (vs 700 inside a metal stove), yet they stay comfortable to the touch on the surface. At these high internal temperatures, the hydrocarbon gases ignite, leaving very minimal pollution.
How Masonry Heater Works
当燃烧木材时，大约30%产生的热量是由木材固体提供的，70%的热量包含在释放的气体中。如果挥发性气体没有完全燃烧，它们就会以废热和污染颗粒物的形式逸出。点燃，然后从燃烧气体中吸取热量，几乎每一盎司的木材都变成了能源。缓慢燃烧，低温，低氧火产生焦油和碳氢化合物，快速，热，空气补充火燃烧污染物。加上一个蓄电池(砖石)，你就有了一个非常高效、无污染的加热系统。A metal stove gives out its heat rapidly, thus never allowing the inside combustion temperatures to achieve the 1100 degree F plus needed to ignite all the gases.
A Masonry Heater Uses Less Wood
Because the stored heat radiates slowly from the masonry, it is only necessary to light a fire once a day in most circumstances. In really cold conditions, you might need to light two fires a day. Metal wood stoves must be tended to continually and fluctuate from peak high temperatures, to no heat, when the fire is out.
The Masonry Heater: An Ancient Green Technology
Themasonry stovehas been around in many different forms in almost all ancient northern cultures, from the 7200-year-oldKang bed stovein China to theHypocaustin ancient Rome. In northern Europe, 500-600 years ago, a long-lived cold spell caused local wood to become scarce and masonry heaters became common due to their efficiency.
In the past hundred years dirty coal, then oil replaced the masonry heater. Wood is a renewable resource and absorbs CO2 as it grows. Burning releases about the same amount of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane as would occur if the wood were decomposing naturally on the forest floor.* Yet wood is a sustainable energy source, only when proper wood lot management is employed and when its energy is extracted efficiently and cleanly.
Although these effective heaters were and are still popular in Russian and northern Europe, the United States has never had a wood shortage, so the masonry heater has been pushed aside for the wood guzzling metal stove. Considering that masonry heaters are efficient and emit little pollution, the United States should take a closer look.
Masonry Heater Circulation
Directing the hot flue exhaust through a series of baffles heats up the surrounding masonry. The baffles can meander in numerous directions. Some stove’s baffles take the exhaust side to side, some up and down, some front to back, and vice versa. There is always a source of air coming in the base of the heater to feed the fire.
Yet, flues that are too long and convoluted might restrict the draft through the system, as each change of direction creates resistance to the gas flow and decreases the suction of the chimney draft.
How To Mimic A Masonry Heater
Surround your heater core with stone, brick, stucco or tile. Although kits are available, this is not a project for one new to masonry (see resources section). In the meantime, before I build one, I am simply going to pile large rocks around the wood stove.
35 Amazing Masonry Heater Inspirations
Here are some of the best masonry heater ideas out there.
砖石加热器-在旧设计基础上的新炉子。kachelfen是一种瓷砖木火炉，里面有迷宫般的砖石通道。蜿蜒的废气加热周围的砖石，然后慢慢地辐射它的热量。一扇没有窗户的小门让火在加热器内燃烧得非常热。高热量和第二个燃烧室的加入，燃烧了污染挥发性气体，并有效地将它们转化为热量。For more examples go tobiofireinc.com.
Tiled Kachelofen bybiofireinc.com. Special ‘kachel’ tiles surround the internal fire brick.
Stucco And Tile
灰泥和瓷砖砌筑加热器。Additional information can be found atfliesen-ofen-ritter.at.
Old fashioned masonry heater clad in stucco and tile.Fliesen+Ofenbau Ritter GmbH,have additional information on their website.
Rustic Masonry Heater
With a black trim, this masonry heater adds a touch of class to any room.
Tiled masonry heater with Asian influence. Only special ‘kachel’ tiles can touch the inner firebrick, all other tiles must be spaced away from the inner masonry, otherwise they will crack. Additional images can be found onfliesen-ofen-ritter.at.
Heater With Stucco
灰泥和瓷砖砌筑加热器。biofireinc.comThe small door keeps the heat inside, so high combustion temperatures are reached more easily.
Finnish Masonry Heater
Tiled masonry heater in Finland. The Finnish government encourages the use of masonry heaters with tax incentives, the program has been so successful that 90% of new homes have masonry heaters. More inspirational photographs like this can be found atcontura.eu.
Swedish stove or kakelugn. The Interior has masonry baffles, the exterior is clad in curved tile. There is actually lots of masonry inside there to soak up the heat.Conturahas other great examples on their website.
Brick masonry heater with heated bench in Denmark. A heater with a façade thickness of 3-4 inches, gives a moderate heat transfer, not too fast, not too slow. By Lars Helbro. Originally found at stenovne.dk
A masonry heater can be a great way to keep a cabin or mountain home heated. Not only do these heaters provide an eye-catching centerpiece, but they are efficient.
Cozy Reading Nook
Brick masonry heater in Denmark by Lars Helbro. For additional ideas visit stenovne.dk.
This masonry heater acts as a wall between two rooms in Quebec, Canada. Bymaconneriegillesgoyette.
Reclaimed Brick Heater
Brick masonry heater made with reclaimed brick, sand and lime mortar, lilac bluestone and a Heat-Kit heater core. By William Davenport, turtlerockheat.com. To reduce stress,masonry heaters在北美通常采用双层墙体系;一种耐火核心，包括火盒和通道或挡板，以及一种单独的、不相连的砖石镶面。Otherwise the heat of the firebrick might crack the façade, although brick is least likely to be stressed.
砌体加热器与包裹加热的长凳，直接火烤箱(在厨房一侧)，和木材存储由卡斯滕霍姆斯特德马萨诸塞州。Originally found at homespunworks.com.
This masonry heater in Burlington, Vermont hasa bake ovenon the kitchen side. Masons: William Davenport, Spencer Blackwell, Norbert Senf. Turtle Rock Heat has more information and ideas on their website. Originally found at turtlerockheat.com
Heater With A Core
Stone masonry heater with aheatkitcore. If there is too much façade mass, 5″ or more, the mass can slow down the heat exchange. An efficient heater should produce heat at the same rate as the heat is given off (emitted). The firebox size should also match the size of the heater and home.
把加热器放在外墙上效率不高。当在外墙上时，那部分砖石面向外面，只会加热外面的空气。这个加热器是一堵内墙。Vermont masonry heater bysmithandvansant.
Heater From Canada
A masonry heater’s chimney can be ceramic or metal. Large fireboxes reduce combustion efficiency and generate higher emissions. Keeping the window small means the heat gets absorbed into the masonry. Canadian heater by bien-o-chaud-portail-poeles-et-foyers. Originally found at bien-o-chaud-portail-poeles-et-foyers.com
Soapstone tiles give a modernized style to this masonry heater.
Brick masonry heater. There is no reason why some heaters can’t be low and long. There is a wood fired cookstove on the opposite side of this heater. More images can be found at stenovne.dk. Originally found at stenovne.dk
Local slate covers this masonry heater in Vermont by William Davenport. The heater has doors on both sides. Turtle Rock Heat has more information on their website. Originally found at turtlerockheat.com
Heater With Concrete
Masonry heater that extends to room on other side of wall. Custom concrete slabs, steel, black walnut wood box top, bluestone, lilac bluestone. Originally found at turtlerockheat.com/charlotte.html
Soapstone masonry heaters come in all sorts of shapes and sizes. Soapstone has thermal properties that exceed all other stone, brick or stucco. These Tulikivi heaters are at the virginiaradiant showroom. Pictures of a Tulikivi being put together:mha-net.org
Heater With A Window
Masonry heater with large see-through windows. A large firebox reduces combustion efficiency and generates higher emissions. See-through heaters also increase the amount of heat escaping the firebox and therefore lowers combustion temperature and generates higher emissions. Visitbrunner.de额外的信息。
Masonry heater in a bathroom bypeacedesign. If the distance from the core to the surface of the stove is very thick (5″ or more) or complicated (many layers), the heat will radiate out very slowly. An efficient heater should produce heat at the same rate, as the heat is given off (emitted). A massive heater will also be much slower at responding to changes in temperature.
Stucco and mosaic masonry heater. Core is by Heat-kit. More information is available atmha-net.org.
Heater In New York
底部是木火炉，顶部是卡切洛芬瓷砖。这个炉子会给你快速，直接的热量通过金属，和较慢的，从上层砖石隔板辐射热量，它的表面已经瓷砖。然而，由于金属释放热量如此之快，这个炉子可能达不到燃烧所有碳氢化合物所需的内部温度。其他木制炉灶可以在ofenhaus-hop .de找到。Originally found at ofenhaus-hoppe.de/kachel%C3%B6fen.html
Masonry Heater For A Two-Story Home
In a two story home, this is one of the best locations for a masonry heater. A complete gallery of this heater is available onerdwerk-keramik.at.
砖石加热器Via Miodula酒店，波兰。You can find more images atvillamiodula.pl.
Masonry stove in France bypoele-cuisiniere.fr. Remember if there are no flames, half the wood is being wasted as smoke…
Heater With Earth-Clay Plaster
This masonry heater is veneered with the same earth-clay plaster used on the walls of the main floor. A heated bench topped with sandstone makes for a warm perch on winter days. By Gimme Shelter Construction. More photographs and descriptions can be located ongimmeshelteronline.com.
Paving Slab Heater
How A Contra Flow Heater Works
Scheme of a Contra Flow Heater
As the fire burns, air is drawn in through the primary air intake (b), passes up through the grate in the firebox floor (c) and feeds the burning wood. Due to the design of the fire box and its angled ceiling, heat radiating from the fire is reflected off the firebox walls back onto the fire, helping obtain firebox temperatures of 600 Degrees C. a prerequisite for secondary ignition.
Air from the secondary air intake (d) located in the loading doors, the flame and unburnt gases rush up through the narrow throat in the firebox ceiling (e) and enter the secondary combustion chamber (f). Due to the angled ceiling, the flame, air and gases are pressurized slightly.
一旦通过喉部，它们就会膨胀、翻滚和混合，从而产生二次燃烧，温度达到900摄氏度(2200华氏度)。热气体穿过二次燃烧室侧壁的顶部，进入加热器两侧的垂直烟道。(g) Drawn by the draft from the chimney, the hot air flows down the flues transferring its heat to the flue walls before entering the chimney at the base of the heater (g). Via:pyromasse.ca
Masonry Heater Build Guides
- Missouri Mass Stove:dnr.mo.gov.pdf
- Design plans for small (cute!) cabin heater in brick:firespeaking
- Lots of ‘inside’ pictures/designs/lessons:firespeaking
- Core construction manuals, kits start at $5400:heatkit
- Cob masonry heater with bench,handprintpress
- Masonry Heater Planning Guide:tempcast
- Step by step photos:mha-net.org
- Russian Steam Sauna!:stove.ru
Masonry Heater Resources
- Masonry Heater Association:mha-net.org
- Good read:stove.ru
Masonry Heaters: Doors
Certified Heater Masons
Modulars/Freestanding Masonry Heaters
Vintage Masonry Heaters
Gorgeousantique tiled stoves:vintageelements.com
Pellet Masonry Heaters